Archive for the ‘All About AHS’ Category

My Trip Abroad 1909: John Radford Abbot’s Diary: Reflections

Tuesday, March 1st, 2016

I should start, first, by saying that I have had a truly wonderful time transcribing and blogging about this diary. This was my first time doing a transcription, and although I knew the basics of what that meant, the truth was inevitably much more stressful. I was responsible for transcribing this diary to the best of my abilities, when the diary was handwritten in cursive and the pencil was smudged after so many years and some words were illegible, so I spent a lot of my time hunched over in concentration and second guessing myself. But once the transcription was done, I was free to do essentially whatever I wanted with the blog. I could split the posts however I wanted, research whatever caught my eye in that post’s transcription.

During these weeks, I spent the majority of my time marveling at all the places John Radford Abbot went during this trip: United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Italy. All of these places were so different over a hundred years ago, and I wanted to see and feel that. I wanted to see how trains, which were the main form of land transportation then, could change the experience of a country in a way that planes or cars couldn’t. I wanted, especially, to capitalize on the beauty of all the places he went, the mountains and forests and cathedrals and cities, the natural and historical landmarks that should be protected and preserved at all costs.

But above all else, I wanted to learn more about John Radford Abbot. And I did. I learned that he used words like “corking” where we would use “fantastic” or “excellent”. I learned that he loved trains, because when he was in Germany and Switzerland, along with comments about the beautiful scenery, he would write about the specifics of that train (the grade, complexity, etc.). I learned that he loved to hike and climb mountains, as evidenced by his trek through Switzerland when he climbed a mountain almost every day. I learned that he was 16 years old on this trip, and was to graduate from Phillips Andover Academy the next year and continue on to Harvard College. John Radford Abbot had such a fantastic life, and I am so happy that I was able to be a part of that, even if it was over a 100 years late.

Alex Hagler


Andover’s War Gardens

Thursday, September 5th, 2013

wwii-victory-gardens-grow-at-kitchen-door-posterAndover’s history of agriculture extends beyond its farms.  Many of its citizens have and still do tend gardens.  It was only during the Second World War that those gardens became a major source of Andover’s food supply.

US citizens called personal vegetable gardens “liberty gardens” in World War I, and “victory gardens” in World War II.  Both types of garden are also referred to as “war gardens”.  April is the beginning of the growing season in New England.  The Andover Townsman first encouraged its readers to plant war garden on April 13, 1917; exactly one week after the US entered WWI.

Andover was still a farming town during WWI, so the town’s residents focused more on improving the farm yields than on gardening.  Articles like “More Seed Next Week” which was featured on the front page of the Andover Townsman on May 4, 1917, more often involved local farms rather than liberty gardens.  As a farming town, local organizations were more likely to deal with problems like the high cost of seeds, than to organize the planting of vegetable gardens.  Andover still had liberty gardens; they just weren’t part of daily life for most people.

War gardens were four times more numerous in the United States during WWII than they were during WWI.  In 1918, liberty gardens peaked at 5 million gardens, whereas victory gardens peaked at 20 million gardens during 1943.[1]  40 percent of the vegetables consumed by US residents during WWII were grown in victory gardens.  Andover was similarly more involved in planting war gardens during WII.

During WWII, the Andover Townsman began encouraging war gardens on April 2, 1942; its first issue published during start of the first growing season of the war. The war gardens helped in multiple ways.  The most obvious reason people planted them was to lessen civilian dependence on the public food supply, which increased the supply of vegetables available to the troops.  People who planted war gardens donated some of the money they saved on food to the war efforts (usually in the form of buy bonds).  War gardens were also big moral boosters.  Planting them made people feel like they were helping with war, and that helped foster community spirit.

Andover certainly did bond as a community when planting victory gardens and they were a part of daily life.  Several different Andover organizations held regular meetings during the growing seasons of WWII.  The Parent Teacher Association attended dietary lectures delivered by dietary instructor, Hope Coolidge, at Abbot Academy.  These lectures were held every Tuesday of April and May in 1942. They included suggestions on what to plant in victory gardens.  The Memorial Hall Library held weekly meetings about gardening for children in April and May of 1943.  Even as late as 1945, the top books suggested for reading by the Memorial Hall Library in April were gardening books.   Many local businesses helped residents by selling gardening supplies such as fertilizer, mulch, basic tools, seeds, and seedlings.  All of these activities were advertized in the many April and May issues of the Andover Townsman published during WWII.

The victory gardens in Andover marked the last time when the average town resident participated in major agriculture.  The number of farms and farmers in Andover decreased all throughout the 20th century and has continued to decrease into the 21st century.  Today there is only one farm still operating in Andover and only some people have vegetable gardens.

[1] Janet A Flammang, The Taste for Civilization: Food, Politics, and Civil Society, (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 288.


Acquiring the Tools of Agriculture

Thursday, August 29th, 2013

Andover’s first settlers were farmers.  Those farmers needed tools to tend the land.  The number of tools a farm needed during the Colonial Era was large and paying for them could be difficult.  Most of the farmers in Andover obtained those tools and used them well.

The conditions of life in New England during the Colonial Era meant that most towns had to be self sufficient to some degree: a sparse population, limited forms of travel, and slow communication.  When farmers needed tools made of metal or that had metal parts such as many hoes, scythes, pitchforks, hay saws, and sickles, they had to go to the town blacksmith.  This didn’t change until the mid 19th century, when the industrial revolution was in full swing and factories were mass producing metal products at far more attractive prices.  Andover, like most other settlements in New England, had its own blacksmith.

Thomas Chandler was the town’s first blacksmith. He built his first smithy when Andover was founded in 1646.  Chandler also started Andover’s first iron foundry in 1689.[1]  The only blacksmiths in Andover during the 17th century were Chandler and his apprentices.  Chandler’s apprentice, Hopestil Tyler, became the southern part of town’s main blacksmith in 1701.[2]

Colonial farmers in Andover had much better time acquiring tools made solely of wood. According to Sarah L. Bailey, 17th century Andover had five woodworkers: Thomas Johnson, Stephen Johnson, Stephen Osgood, Joseph Parker (the younger), and Samuel Wardwell.[3]  Tools made entirely or mostly of wood were much cheaper that metal ones.  Such tools included but weren’t limited to yokes, feeding troughs, watering troughs, grain flails, crates, and many types of plows.

Wood was so abundant and vital to every person in New England that it was a big industry from the very beginning.  In the mid 17th century, most woodworkers in New England bought their wood from tree fellers directly.  By the early 18th century, most woodworkers in New England got their wood from numerous saw mills all over the region.  The number of wood workers in Andover increased steadily throughout the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.

Andover farmers got most of their agricultural tools from factory outlets by the mid 19th century.  Starting in the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution mechanized the production of goods at an ever increasing rate. Independent artisans couldn’t compete with the volume or the prices of the factories.  The first retail catalog, Montgomery Ward, came out in 1875.  As time went on, other catalogues like Sears appeared.  With improved transportation technology, big corporations could mail products to anyone anywhere in the country at a low price.  Independent artisans no longer had the advantage of being local.

While the industrialization of farm tool manufacture was bad for independent artisans, it was unquestionable good for the farmers.  Farming tools were cheaper, easier to obtain, and more easily customized.  Factory outlets, department stores and retail catalogues sold every physical tool a farmer could need at a reasonable price. Andover farmers bought almost all their tools that way, just like the rest of the country.

People still get their tools in a similar fashion today.  The internet only makes the process of purchasing needed tools faster.  Farming has changed a lot in New England since colonial times.  The techniques, tools, and the method of obtaining the tools have greatly improved.

[1] Sarah L. Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover Massachusetts, (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1880), 47-50, 598

[2] Ibid, 47-50, 125, 152

[3] Ibid, 151


Food Storage

Thursday, August 22nd, 2013
Canning Jar & Lid 1984.120ab

Canning Jar & Lid

Andover began as a farming town and remained a farming town for much of its history. As a farming town, Andover grew most of its own food.  Growing food is only part of feeding populace.  People need to preserve the food they grow or buy in order to feed themselves.  The citizens of Andover had many different ways of preserving food.

A common method of preserving food was drying.  Fruit, vegetables, meat, and fish all take longer to spoil when they are dry.  There were many methods of drying food including smoking, freezing, salting, airing out, and using the sun.  Flour and other ground grain products (known as corn) will last for years when dry.

Salting was an especially effective method of drying food.  Salt dries food out and keeps it dry for long periods of time, in addition to killing some bacteria that causes food to rot. Meat and fish were cured with salt, as were some vegetables like cabbage.  Salting food was so common place and so effective that salt was considered a necessity for many American cities and towns in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

Similar to salting food is smoking it.  The chemicals in the smoke used to dry food helped kill some bacteria that causes food to rot.  Mostly meat and fish were smoked.  Meat and fish were often both smoked and salted.

Many people pickled their food stuffs to preserve them.  Pickling is the process of storing a food in a solution of brine or vinegar.  The chemicals in the solution a food was pickled in preserved it for months and even years.  New England Settlers pickled many things including cucumbers, turnips, carrots, even some meat and fish.  Pickled eggs were a favorite among American settlers during colonial times.

Refrigeration was also practiced by the people of New England.  17th century American settlers built basements for food storage to keep food cool during the summer.  This continued to be common place up until the 19th century when ice boxes became common place, and was still widely practiced until the mid 20th century.  Ice cellars became commonplace in New England starting the 1830s.  Most homes in Andover had boxes by the late 1840s.  This continued up until the 1940s, when most houses had a refrigerator. The most commonly refrigerated foods were meat and dairy products.

Canned foods began to appear in New England during the early 19th century.  Frozen, salted, smoked, and other preserved foods were sealed air tight in metal cans. This kept microbes in the air from growing in the preserved food.  Canned foods could last for years.  Canning still works along the same principles today, only with better technology.

Andover farmers worked just as hard preserving the food that they grew as they did growing it in the first place.  It is important to remember that, just like today, growing and hunting food was only half the battle of feeding people.


Andover’s First Farm

Thursday, August 15th, 2013

Richard Barker was the first documented settler known to have lived in Andover.  He was the first farmer of a farming town.  The farm he started is still in operation today in North Andover.  It is a link to the history of both Andover and North Andover.

Cochickawicke was the section of Essex Country that is now North Andover.  In 1646, the town of Andover was created, and replaced the old Indian name Cochickawicke by English law.  Andover’s first business transaction took place on August 13, 1643, when Richard Barker of Cochickawicke bought 7 acres of land, some cows, and some hay from a man in Ipswich.  According to some historians including Philip J Greven Jr.[1] and Sarah L. Bailey[2], this makes Richard Barker the first individual citizen with legal documentation from the period proving that he lived in Andover.  Barker’s Farm is the oldest continually run family farm in the US.

John Woodbridge of Ipswich, and later of Andover, got permission from Governor Dudley as early as 1641, to create a permanent settlement in Cochickawicke.  Some historians like Charlotte Helen Abbot[3] and Sarah L. Bailey[4] suggest that people were living in the settlement as early as 1642.  Sarah L. Bailey made a point of informing her readers that there is no definite proof anyone living in the settlement that Woodbridge set up before Barker; all of the documentation is suggestive and may have been referring to extra legal and material preparations for the settlement.

Richard Barker was the fourth person to receive a land grant when Andover was incorporated in 1646.  This was in addition to the land he purchased in 1643.  The 51 year old farmer’s prosperity would only increase after 1646.  His heirs had a 400 acre farm to fight over when he died in 1693.  Richard Barker the younger ended up inheriting the land.

Barker’s Farm literally defined the border between the North Parish and South Parish during the 18th century.  In 1709, the General Court in Salem used “the west corner Richard Barker’s Land” as a landmark in the official boundary between the north and south parishes.[5]  The boundary between North Parish and South Parish was changed in 1826, when West Parish was established in Andover.  Thus Barker’s Farm was in the upper middle part of North Andover in 1855, when the Andover voted to split into two towns.

In the 1990s, George Barker, father of the current owner of Barker’s Farm, sold land between the dairy farm on Bradford Street and the vegetable farm on Osgood Street.  The 150 acres of remaining land is being used for farming.  While the farm may have been bisected, it has never changed location.

Today Barker’s Farm is still in business. Vegetables are sold at farm stand on Osgood Street in North Andover, and cattle are still being raised on Bradford Street.  The current owner of the farm is Diane Barker.  Andover’s first farm may not be located in Andover, but that is because Andover split in two.  This link to Andover’s past that still stands.

[1] Philip J. Greven Jr., Four Generations: Population, Land, and Family in Colonial Andover Massachusetts, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970), 85.

[2] Sarah L. Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover Massachusetts, (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1880), 90.

[3] Charlotte Helen Abbot, Early Records of the Woodbridge Family of Andover, Memorial Hall Library Archives, accessed July 10, 2013,

[4] Sarah L. Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover Massachusetts, (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1880), 7-8.

[5] Claude M. Fuess, Andover: Symbol of New England, (Andover: the Andover Historical Society, 1959), 119-120.


From Farm To Driving Range

Thursday, July 25th, 2013

The Sarkisian Farms Driving Range is a successful Andover business.  Its evolution from small farm to driving range and ice cream stand has pleased the Sarkisian family.  Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian run the business in a way that benefits the Andover community in addition to providing income.  This married couple has tended the land for over 50 years.

Ovogen Sarkisian immigrated to Andover from Armenia with his wife in 1932, and started the Sarkisian Farms on Chandler Road.[1]  Ovogen and Sating Sarkisian had three children, Sarkis in 1934, Olga in 1936, and Elizabeth in 1938.  The family had to work hard to make a living as vegetable farmers.  On a typical work day, Ovogen transported his crops to Faneuil Hall in Boston several hours before dawn and waited until morning when the wholesalers came to buy them.  After delivering the crops the wholesalers bought, he would finish his day by working in the fields.[2]

The Sarkisians had to perform most of the repair and maintenance work on their own.  They couldn’t afford to take the time to wait for a specialist to fix broken machinery or irrigation systems if they wanted to keep the farm running.[3]  They lost money during the time spent fixing machinery or irrigation systems.  It was already hard enough to make ends meet.

Increasing globalization and the continued growth of corporate farming throughout the 20th century made it hard for small farms to stay in business.  In 1968, Sarkis inherited the farm from his father.  Sarkis adapted to the changing business climate by starting a greenhouse and selling flowers in addition to vegetables in 1969.  He gradually built more greenhouses for flowers and planted fewer vegetables.  The hard life as a farmer made a strong impression on Sarkis.  Rita and Sarkis did not encourage their two children to continue in their footsteps as farmers.[4]

The Sarkisians continued to adapt to a changing agricultural market.  In 1984, they started growing strawberries and let customers pick their own.  It was a popular item, and was the last crop they stopped planting.  They stopped farming all together in 1992, and let all their land go fallow.[5]  Rita and Sarkis started the Sarkisian Farms Driving Range together in 1995, using the land they used to grow crops on.  The greenhouses were slowly phased out after the driving range and ice cream stand were started.  The last greenhouse was shut down in 2003, and the building is now being used for storage.  Neither of the Sarkisians regrets giving up farming.[6]  In fact they sometimes wonder how they managed to keep farming so long in the first place.

Andover benefits from the Sarkisian’s community spirit.  The Sarkisians make a point of hiring high school and college students.[7]  For many of those students, it is their first job.[8]  Andover residents don’t have to travel far to practice golfing.  The driving range is quite busy in the summer and many people stop by just for the ice cream.  It is a major place of family fun.

While the popularity of the Sarkisian Farms Driving Range means that the Sarkisians are still working a lot, it is still easier than farming.  Rita and Sarkis are quite content to keep running the driving range.  After they retire, Rita and Sarkis fully expect their children Jeffrey and Christine to run the business.[9]

[1] “About Us”, accessed May 28, 2013,

[2] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013

[3] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013

[4] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013

[5] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013

[6] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013

[7] Tom Vartabedian, Retirement No Option for the Sarkisians, The Armenian Weekly, March 6, 2012, accessed May 28, 2013,

[8] Tom Vartabedian, Retirement No Option for the Sarkisians, The Armenian Weekly, March 6, 2012, accessed May 28, 2013,

[9] Rita and Sarkis Sarkisian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Sarkisian Farms and Drinving Range, April 2013


The Last Andover Farm

Thursday, July 18th, 2013
 Dargoonian Farm Greenhouses

Dargoonian Farm Greenhouses

Andover began as a bustling farming town in the early 17th century.  After many years of industrial development, now there is only one farm left in Andover, the Dargoonian Farms.  Thomas and Dena Dargoonian run Andover’s last connection with its agricultural roots.  The Dargoonian family is a living Andover legacy proving that people can succeed when almost everything seems lost.

Miriam and Thomas Dargoonian fled the Armenian Genocide, coming to the United States after a massacre in 1918.[1]  They settled in Lawrence and had two children, Garabed (known as “Red” to his friends) in 1921 and Benjamin in 1923.  Thomas Dargoonian died in 1929.  Miriam Dargoonian married an Andover farmer named Kazar Loosigian.  Kazar was also an Armenian who fled the genocide; he started a farm in Andover in 1928, like many other members of his family.  Kazar and Miriam were determined to create a lasting legacy in their new community and succeeded.  The children they raised together would take up the family business as would their grandchildren.

Kazar left the farm to his stepchildren Red and Ben.  The farm eventually passed down to Benjamin’s son, Thomas Henry Dargoonian, who is the current owner of the Dargoonian Farms.  Thomas and his wife Dena ran the farm in the 1980s, and Ben and Red continued working the farm to near present-day.  Red retired in 1993[2], and Ben worked on the farm until his death in 2011.[3]

The Dargoonian Farms are a family business not just for the owners, but for many of the employees as well.  Red and Ben transported workers from Puerto Rico for seasonal work on the farm.  Eventually the Puerto Rican seasonal workers stopped travelling back and forth from their place of seasonal work and settled in Andover.  The Puerto Rican farmers started their own legacy working at the Dargoonian Farms, and some of their grandchildren still work there.  The oldest of them are in their 60s.[4]

The Dargoonian Farm has gone through many changes.  In the 1960s, Ben and Red built a greenhouse and began selling flowers in addition to crops.  During the late 1980s, the farm was moved.  The land where the farm started was sold to a developer and Red bought 45 acres of land from the state of Massachusetts.  The newly purchased land was mostly pine forest and had to be cleared. Of that purchase, 15 acres of wetlands remain that are not being used for farming by the Dargoonians.[5]

As of today, the Dargoonian farm is doing well.  Peppers, eggplants, cabbage, cucumbers, and squash are grown there and sold wholesale to Market Basket.  Garden centers, flower shops, landscapers, and the general public buy flowers from the Dargoonians.  The farm keeps up with new technologies and other modern agricultural innovations, such as genetically enhanced seeds which increase crop yield.  Because they use biodegradable mulch built around a net mesh, weeding no longer needs to be done by hand.  Some things remain the same: transplanting is still done by hand, crop rotation is still practiced, and the crops still need be cared for around the clock.[6]

Thomas and Dena do not expect their three daughters to continue the family tradition of farming, because the girls are interested in other careers.  The land that the Dargoonians are currently tending is part of the Massachusetts Agricultural Preservation Restriction Program (APR).  This program was created to preserve the long term viability of the Massachusetts agricultural industry.  The land the Dargoonians are on cannot be used for anything other than agriculture, because law forbids it be sold or used for anything else.  Thus while the land may change hands and be renamed, the Dargoonian Farms will still be a farm after the Dargoonians are gone.


[1] Thomas and Dena Dargoonian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Dargoonian Farms, May 4th, 2013.

[2] Don Sturak, The Dargoonian Family: Farming is in Their Blood, The Andover Townsman, October 5th, 1995

[3] Benjamin Dargoonian’s Obituary.

[4] Thomas and Dena Dargoonian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Dargoonian Farms, May 4th, 2013.

[5] Thomas and Dena Dargoonian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Dargoonian Farms, May 4th, 2013.

[6] Thomas and Dena Dargoonian, Interviewed by Joshua E. Dallal, Dargoonian Farms, May 4th, 2013.


Last Loosigian Farmer

Thursday, July 11th, 2013
Peter and Alice Loosigian with son, John

Peter and Alice Loosigian with son, John

Peter Ohan Loosigian died November 16, 2012.  He was the owner of Strawberry Hill Farm located on Lowell Street in Andover, one of only two farms in town at the time.  Peter was the last of a long line of Armenian farmers.

Many of Loosigians that came to Andover from Armenia fled the Armenian Genocide.  Some fled before the genocide which started in 1915, but many came to the United States after it began.[1]  Ohan Loosigian, father of Peter Ohan Loosigian, was born in Armenia in 1884 and moved to Watertown, Massachusetts in 1911 with his family.[2]  In 1918, he moved to a 10 acre farm on Lowell Street with his family.[3] Peter Ohan Loosigian was born on February 18th, 1921 in an Andover farmhouse built in 1830.[4]

Peter was rooted to agriculture and Andover.  He joined the United States Army Air Corps and served in the pacific during World War II.  When he left the service, he quickly returned to Andover when he left the service and got a job at Watson Park in Ballardvale.[5] He returned to work with his father on the farm immediately after he married Alice Arozian in 1949.  In addition to tending his own fields and gardens, Peter his neighbors with their gardens.  Peter’s hard work ethic and community spirit made his name synonymous with the farm before he inherited it from his father in 1957.

Alison’s parents also came to the United States and settled in Watertown fleeing the Armenian Genocide.  Both Peter and Alice learned from their parents how lucky they were to live in America and made sure their children knew it too.  They made sure their children did well in school.  In 1992, Peter renamed the Loosigian Farms as Strawberry Hill Farm and set up a farm stand.

Peter’s death marks the end of 94 years of Loosigian farming in Andover. His descendants have taken up other career paths and will not be following in his footsteps.  This Armenian family came to Andover to farm in 1918 and contributed to an Andover profession that has since begun fade. Since Strawberry Hill Farm closed, the Dargoonian Farms are last farm in town.


[1] An interview with Thomas Henry Dargoonian, a Kazar Loosigian’s grandson

[2] US Census Report 1940.

[3] 1918 Andover Street Directory and US Census Report 1940.

[4] Lisa Loosigian, Peter Ohan Loosigian: A Remembrance, The Andover Townsman, January 31, 2013.

[5] Lisa Loosigian, Peter Ohan Loosigian: A Remembrance, The Andover Townsman, January 31, 2013.


Andover at Work – Video 1: The Kitchen

Friday, June 14th, 2013

Hi and hello from the Andover Historical Society! This is PR & Development Assistant Carrie Midura writing on behalf of one of our student volunteers, Rory, who just completed the first video in a series that will explore our Andover at Work in the 1820s program. Typically attended by Andover 3rd-grade students, it’s a hand-on program that explores life, responsibilities and community in early 19th century Andover. We’re pleased to share Rory’s first video that focuses on the kitchen. Enjoy and stay tuned for additional videos in the coming weeks and months!


My Trip Abroad: J. Radford Abbot Diary Part 5

Monday, June 10th, 2013

Date: Tuesday, July 13th

Location: Lucania


Almost calm. This morning a while flock of seagulls came and stayed with the ship all day. There were hundreds of them. We came in sight of land in Ireland, about 10:30 A.M. and passed [fasten] light about 11 A.M. from there it was about 50 min. to Queens- town where we arrived at 2:30 P.M. Here we were met by two [thunders] both which took off about 100 passengers and the mail. From there we proceeded along the coast of Ireland into the Irish Sea we could see both the Irish and Welsh coasts. Went to bed at 10:30 and fought over accounts. Our official time was 5 d 21h 41m (5days 21 hours 4 minutes)  


In this entry of John Radford Abbot’s diary, the Lucania goes into the Irish Sea, which is the small section of water between England and Ireland above the St. George’s Channel. He writes about how he can see the coast of Ireland, and the coast of Whales, a country that is also in the United Kingdom.  From the ships spot in the Irish Sea, John would have passed Liverpool, a city and of Merseyside, England, United Kingdom along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, and Dublin, the capitol of Ireland that is along the east coast of Ireland. Ireland is supposed to be a beautiful country with lots of historical sites, like the Hill of Tara, and many castles like the Green

castle. England is one of the most popular places in the world to visit because of London, Buckingham Palace, and its famous history. It has always been a dream of mine to visit the United Kingdom’s, and now after doing more research on it, want to go even more.

Greencastle, Ireland

Greencastle, Ireland